A complete guide to Southeast Asia train travel, featuring resources for buying tickets and reviews of rail travel in the region.
An introduction to Southeast Asia Railways
Travel by train is a great way to experience the landscapes of Southeast Asia and to meet the people who live here. Personally, I think train travel is the best way to travel in the region, and I always choose it if it’s a suitable option.
With low-cost airlines having revolutionised travel in Southeast Asia, it’s become easy to just fly everywhere. If you are travelling in the region for the first time then I would consider adding rail travel whenever it’s possible.
I remember little details of the first train trip I took in Thailand. The whirr of the ceiling fan (yes, trains with ceiling fans) and the sound of the train tracks as the sleeper train from Bangkok made its way to Surat Thani for the Gulf islands. I remember nothing of the flight home.
Trains in the region for the most part have not been fully modernised yet, so it is a completely different travel experience compared to travel in Europe and East Asia. For that reason alone you should experience it as it once was before we are all riding modern trains built in China.
This guide covers every country in Southeast Asia that has a railway, though it doesn’t include city metro railways or airport trains. Most of the railway action is on mainland Southeast Asia, with a few railways running on the major islands in maritime Southeast Asia.
Buy Train Tickets
Baolau is a multi-transport travel search engine for Southeast Asia. Search and book trains, buses and ferries in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.
Southeast Asia countries with train services
Cambodia rail travel articles
Cambodia railways – a guide to train travel in Cambodia.
Railway Operator: Kereta Api Indonesia
Out of the 17,000+ islands of Indonesia, there are two islands with railways, and four other islands are planning, promising, or constructing railways.
[Train at Gambir Station, Jakarta.]
Getting around by train is a good option on Java with trains crossing the entire length of the island. If you are overlanding from Sumatra it’s possible to get the ferry to Merak and begin your journey there.
Starting from Jakarta, the train is the best way to escape the city as you don’t have to go through traffic to get to the bus station. Gambir Station is close to Jalan Jaksa, which is the backpacker street in Jakarta.
There are three branches that travel east towards Surabaya, and a single line after Surabaya that continues to the eastern end of Java at Banyuwangi. From there you can get bus and ferry tickets to Bali.
For visitors, the best route to take is the line that goes via Bandung and Yogyakarta.
[Railway crossing at Yogyakarta]
Most visitors continue on to Bali, but if you can’t get enough of Java trains then you can turn back to Jakarta via Semarang on the northern route.
Jakarta Airport Rail Link – Train details, and which stations are best for visitors.
For an island that is over 2000km long Sumatra only has a few rail options, which are not useful from a tourist’s perspective. Eventually, these disjointed lines will form part of the Trans-Sumatra railway, which will traverse the length of the island. For now, services in operation are most useful if you are slow-travelling around the island.
Sumatra Railways: A guide to every train line in Sumatra.
Palembang to Bandar Lampung by train – Riding the coal-subsidised railway of South Sumatra.
Kualanamu Airport Rail Link: The Medan airport train.
Indonesia rail resources
Kereta Api – Indonesian Railways.
Tiket – a user-friendly ticket booking service. A small fee is added but it will save you the time and frustration of buying on the Indonesian railway site, which often rejects foreign credit cards.
The most comprehensive online Java Indonesia travel itinerary – dontworryjusttravel.com.
In December 2021 the Laos-China Railway opened, operating from Boten on the China-Laos border to Vientiane. Read more about the history of the Laos-China Railway.
Here is my trip report of the Laos-China Railway from May 2022.
Nong Khai (Thailand) – Thanaleng Railway
The Nong Khai – Thanaleng Railway is a shuttle train that connects Nong Khai in Thailand to Thanaleng, 4 km north of the Laos-Thailand border. Thanaleng is 20 km east of Vientiane, and it will be extended to Vientiane South in 2022.
Malaysia rail travel articles
Malaysia railways – a guide to train travel in Malaysia.
Jungle Railway – The best train times and most scenic sections.
Railway Operator: Ministry of Rail Transportation
Myanmar is similar to shape and length of Thailand, and like Thailand the trains here are hub-and-spoke from the principal city (Yangon is no longer the capital). There are over 4000km of railway in Myanmar, and trains travel to main points of interest (Bagan and Inle Lake). Decades of underinvestment have left the railways in poor condition, so don’t expect similar service and comfort to Thailand. Lines are being restored and new carriages deployed, so hopefully that will change over the coming years. For now, though, trains are much slower than the bus, and perhaps your last chance to travel rough before everything is modernised.
In Yangon check out the Yangon Circle Train. While this is technically a commuter train, this is a unique travel experience to see this old rail service that does what it says and circles Yangon.
From Yangon, there are services north of Bagan and Mandalay. The overnight train Yangon and Bagan may not be comfortable, but it is certainly an experience you’ll remember.
Another branch to Mandalay goes via the new capital of Naypyitaw. From Thazi (north of Naypyitaw) there are services to Kalaw and Shwenyaung (for Inle Lake).
Northeast of Mandalay the service to Lashio is one of the great Southeast Asia rail experiences, especially between Pyin U Lwin To Hsipaw. I caught this train in December 2011 when the country was just beginning to open up.
This was the 1st class carriage for the Mandalay-Lashio train. The trains are now being upgraded and pictures I’ve seen of newer trains look more comfortable than the one I took.
[1st class carriage Pyin U Lwin To Hsipaw (December 2011)]
I joined this service at Pyin U Lwin, which is a good place to start as the Mandalay service starts at 4 am. Trains from Pyin Oo Lwin depart at a more civilised time of 8:22 am.
[Pyin U Lwin train station]
The highlight of this trip is crossing the Goteik viaduct, which was built in 1900 with parts shipped from the United States.
The train I was on was running late so we got to see the southbound train crossing the bridge first.
When I visited the guidebook knowledge was that you couldn’t take photos of the bridge while crossing. Something about state secrets. I imagine now there would be selfie sticks hanging out of every window.
[Crossing the Goteik viaduct.]
Another travel option is from Mandalay to Myitkyina, which will take you to the most northerly station in Southeast Asia.
Travelling south of Yangon there is a line that runs to Mawlamyine (Moulmein) and Dawei, which is scenic yet slow.
International trains from Myanmar
Myanmar has borders with four countries but there are no international services to any.
Myanmar rail resources
railways.gov.mm – Government website for Myanma Railways.
Train travel in Myanmar (Burma) – For railway information about any country seat61.com has the most comprehensive independent updates.
Railway Operator: Philippine National Railways
The only functioning railway in the Philippines is in Luzon. Not counting the Manila commuter trains there is one line that runs from Manila to Legaspi. Most of that line is not operating as it is being repaired, and only the section from Naga to Legaspi is operating.
[Tanjong Pagar railway station, the former main train station of Singapore.]
Singapore has no national railway but it’s served by the Malaysian railway, KTM.
Trains from Malaysia used to terminate at Tanjong Pagar railway station, which was close to the city centre. That station was closed down in June 2011 and trains now terminate at Woodlands. This station is less than a kilometre from the Malaysia border so you are barely getting any Singapore train travel. The new station is connected to the MRT line.
And now to make the travel experience even worse, there is currently no direct train from Kuala Lumpur. Trains stop at the border at Johor Bahru and there you wait for another train to shuttle across the border. There is a high-speed train planned for the KL-Singapore route, so maybe then you will be able to get the same train.
A more luxurious train option is the Eastern and Oriental Express – a luxury train service that travels between Singapore and Bangkok, taking three days and two nights.
Singapore Rail Blog Posts
[Hualamphong Train Station, Bangkok – Thailand.]
Railway Operator: State Railway of Thailand
Thailand has a good network of railways, with all lines radiating from the central point of Bangkok. Thailand is 1600km from north to south, which lends itself to overnight train travel.
To the north the overnight train to Chiang Mai is a relaxing way to travel. Leaving in the evening the train arrives early the next day. The seats are converted into beds and are surprisingly comfortable.
[2nd class sleeper train.]
With long north-south distances and trains in both directions often sharing a single line, train schedules are timed according to when they can pass each other.
[3rd class from Chumphon to Prachuap Khiri Khan.]
Heading south, the overnight train from Bangkok to Surat Thani is a good way to travel to the gulf islands of Koh Samui and Koh Phangan.
One of the most unusual railway experiences in Southeast Asia is Maeklong market train, which is south of Bangkok. To get to the station the train goes through an actual market. Vendors who set up stalls on the track quickly pack up their goods and move to the side while the train passes through.
[Maeklong market train.]
International trains from Thailand
Thailand is surrounded by four countries, though there are only two international train services.
There is a train that travels to Laos, which is a cross-border shuttle that runs from Nong Khai (Thailand) to Thanaleng (Laos). This train is timed to meet the Bangkok to Nong Khai service, and Thanaleng is about 20km from Vientiane.
For trains to Malaysia, there is a direct service to Padang Besar which is just over the border (after Hat Yai, Thailand). From Padang Besar, you can connect to Butterworth (for Penang), KL, and Singapore.
Book tickets from Bangkok to Padang Besar (and Malaysia).
Krung Thep Aphiwat Central Terminal; A guide to Bangkok main train station (AKA Bang Sue Grand Station).
Train 7 Bangkok to Chiang Mai: The day train through historic Thailand.
Getting the train in the troubled deep south of Thailand – A review of the train from Hat Yai to Sungai Kolok, through the provinces of Thailand which have travel advisories to not travel to.
Bangkok to Chiang Mai by train – Best train times to see some of the highlights of Thailand.
The train that will transform Nakhon Ratchasima – A report on my visit Nakhon Ratchasima, where a high-speed train will connect to Bangkok, and eventually to the Laos border.
Thailand rail resources
State Railway of Thailand – Official website that looks like an old Geocities homepage.
12GO Asia – My recommended train ticket booking site in Thailand. It’s easy to use and will save you time and frustration from trying to use the State Railway website.
[Train from Danang to Hue.]
Railway Operator: Vietnam Railways
Vietnam Railways – A guide to every line, tickets, and FAQs.
Hanoi Train Street Guide: Where to visit the open sections.
Hanoi Train Street: Visiting the Old Quarter section in 2019.
Book train tickets in Vietnam
dsvn.vn – Official Vietnam Railways booking site.
A more user-friendly booking site is Baolau.
Southeast Asia Railways Facebook Group
Any questions related to travel by train in Southeast Asia please visit the Southeast Asia Railways Facebook group.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is there a Southeast Asia Train Pass?
Southeast Asia is a long way from being developed enough to offer a railway pass that would be similar to the Eurail Pass in Europe. The railway network of Southeast Asia is not extensive enough to warrant such a ticket, and there are very few international connections.
Can I travel from India to Myanmar by train?
Even though the two countries are neighbours there is no rail link yet. There are plans to build a line from Impal in India to Tamu in Myanmar. This would provide an eventual connection from Delhi to Yangon.
Are there any international train services in Southeast Asia?
There are currently three international services:
Bangkok (thailand) – Padang Besar (Malaysia)
Nong Khai (Thailand) – Thanaleng (Laos)
Johor Bahru (Malaysia – Woodlands (Singapore)
Read more here: International train services in Southeast Asia.
Future Southeast Asia Railways
One of my projects at Nomadic Notes has been to map the proposed railways of Southeast Asia. To illustrate what is planned for the region I’ve created a map of current and proposed railways in Southeast Asia.
The black lines on the map represent railways that are currently operating, while the red lines are proposed lines.
This map is based on my previous project which depicted Southeast Asia railways as a subway-style map.
This map has details of all the proposed railways which are listed here:
Future Southeast Asia – A map of proposed railways in Southeast Asia